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The development of Human society

Humanities and social sciences are collectively referred to as the humanities and social sciences, sometimes referred to as philosophy, social sciences, social sciences, and liberal arts. As a relatively independent knowledge system, the humanities and social sciences are a basic concept that defines vagueness and controversy. It involves understanding the basic theoretical issues of cognitive activities, scientific demarcation standards and knowledge classification.

Humanities and social sciences face things that have a meaningful relationship

It not only studies commonality and universality, but also studies individuality. It can not only exclude but also study contingency, research meaning and value. At the same time, its research subject and object are not human beings like natural science. The one-way relationship between the things can not be communicated, but the two-way interaction between people can be understood and understood. Although they have had a relationship with natural sciences, theoretical sciences, and independent sciences from the very beginning, and even have some kind of identity or kinship at the level of science, all of this It does not deny that it has emerged from time to time, developed and expanded, and its special contribution to the rich coverage of the evolution of scientific concepts to this day. In terms of research methods, the humanities and social sciences draw on and reference some empirical methods of the natural sciences, but they have research objects, research methods and research paths that are completely different from the natural sciences. In the history of the development of science, together with the natural sciences, it supports a complete scientific “building”, thus playing a unique and irreplaceable role for the prosperity and prosperity of the human science.

Humanities and social sciences have dual attributes and dual functions

The dual attribute refers to science and value, and the dual function refers to the function of scientific understanding and the function of ideology. On the one hand, it must proceed from objective facts, adhere to the principles and laws of science, use scientific methods and methods in accordance with scientific logic and procedures, conduct scientific understanding and practice, and draw scientific conclusions to maintain scientific Theoretical character, to achieve scientific understanding function. On the other hand, it takes human’s own cultural phenomena and social phenomena as the research object, so it is inevitable to assume the ideological function. The so-called ideological function of the humanities and social sciences means that under the premise of adhering to scientificity, it consciously maintains certain values ​​and social interests. If we talk about the nature of natural science research, study the inevitable causal relationship in the world of things, study universality and commonality, and exclude contingency, meaning and value, then the humanities and social sciences study the human world, people and their creation and expression. And common laws, but also study contingency and particularity, and have value. In a nutshell, the humanities and social sciences are both factual science and value science. They are the science of unity of subjectivity and subjectivity, truth and value, facts and norms.

Humanities have lag or lateness

In the 19th century, Conde, a philosophical philosopher of science, described the development of science from low-level to high-level in the three stages of theology, metaphysics, and empirical research, and pointed out that mathematics is the queen of all sciences. The most rigorous and complete, physics has reached the level of evidence, biology has entered the metaphysical stage, and sociology is still in the theological stage. Although the world today is not the era in which Comte is in, the humanities and social sciences have achieved unprecedented development. However, regardless of the methods of research and the level of research results, they still lag behind the natural sciences. When Einstein analyzed the relationship between physics and reality, he also made a brilliant exposition of the hierarchy of scientific theory. He pointed out that scientific theory can be divided into three levels. The first level system is all the original concepts used by science, that is, those concepts directly related to sensory experience and the empirical knowledge system composed of propositions linking these concepts. The combination of the system also has a large randomness and belongs to a low-level and low-level system. The second level system is a general theoretical knowledge system with a small number of concepts and relationships derived from the original concept and the original relationship in the first level system according to certain logic rules. The construction of this level system has a high logical unity. Sex. The third level system is a scientific axiom system derived from a few basic concepts and relationships in the second level system according to strict logic rules. It reflects the essence and whole of things more intensively and comprehensively at a deeper level. The world of phenomena is also farther away. Any science, from initial construction to maturity, will generally go through these three stages, from the first stage to the second stage, along the inductive route, which belongs to the extensive empirical science formation process; The leap to the third stage, along the deductive route, is a mature process of theoretical science. Relatively speaking, the vast majority of modern humanities and social science research is still at the former level, and most of the research in the natural sciences has reached the height of the latter.

Therefore, the humanities and social sciences are the sciences of human and human society. Compared with the natural sciences, it has typical humanistic qualities and social qualities: both objective and subjective, both factual and valuable. It is both truthful and utilitarian (or has both the function of understanding the world and the function of ideology). It is both universal and unique. It is both inevitability and contingency. It is both theoretical and normative. Sex, both basic and applicable, both empirical and solid, and so on. It can be said that comprehensiveness is its most fundamental characteristic as science.

The division between man and animal begins with the emergence of consciousness and the differentiation of subject and object. This is also the premise of the realization of understanding and practice. However, in the long prehistoric period, due to the slow increase of human intelligence, coupled with the low level of social productivity and the narrow scale of production and life, the ancestors’ understanding of nature, society and themselves was narrow and superficial, and they stayed at the level of perceptual experience for a long time. Most of the knowledge comes directly from production and life experiences. For example, the knowledge about the solar cycle, the life cycle of the animals, the life and death of the human beings, the totem worship and the rituals. These knowledge are mainly accumulated through the generations of oral inheritance within the blood clan commune, mostly scattered, common-sense, and empirical perceptual knowledge, including the germination of many disciplines in the future.

At the end of the primitive society, with the improvement of the level of social productivity, the surplus of material living materials gradually appeared, creating conditions for the division of labor between mental and physical labor. Since entering the class society, the formation of the brain laborer group has accelerated the process of human understanding of the objective world. In particular, the invention of the word symbol has caused a qualitative change in the cognitive activities, changing the way of recording and communicating knowledge in the past, so that the knowledge flow and the total amount The cumulative speed is significantly faster. It is generally believed that: “The humanities originated from Cicero’s educational program of cultivating the eloquent, and then became the basic program of classical education, and then transformed into the basic education of medieval Christianity.”[1] This period produced many writings and Literary and artistic works have formed a systematic and specific knowledge system of astronomy, calendar, mechanics, medicine, military, philosophy, history, literature, etc., and the emergence of modern natural sciences and humanities and social sciences has emerged. Among them, the individual categories of humanities and natural sciences are relatively mature. As an integral part of human spiritual performance, the early natural sciences also had a strong humanistic color. It must be pointed out that there is a big difference between these early knowledge and the knowledge we understand today:

– Different levels of maturity. The former lags far behind the latter in depth and breadth, and the systematic, theoretical, and scientific level of knowledge is relatively low.

——The content of the subject is different from the boundary. The former is often a multi-faceted knowledge that is not yet fully differentiated. For example, ancient philosophy carried out an encyclopedic study of the objective world, which contained the germination of many disciplines; astronomy has both the observation of the law of the heavens and the mysterious rules of divination and good fortune.

– Different research methods. The former is mostly based on intuition, speculation, and speculation. The latter is mainly based on experiments, hypotheses, experience induction, and mathematical deduction.

After a long medieval period dominated by Christian culture, the capitalist mode of production began to sprout in Europe. In order to overthrow the feudal production relations, the emerging bourgeoisie launched a comprehensive offensive against the backward feudal aristocracy in the fields of politics, economy, ideology and culture. They first found weapons against religious theology and feudal rule in ancient Greek and Roman cultures, and in the field of ideology and culture, they launched the “Renaissance” movement marked by the renaissance of classical culture. The Renaissance campaign promotes the banner of “humanism”, advocates humanity, opposes divinity; advocates rationality, opposes God’s revelation; advocates individual liberation and freedom and equality, and opposes medieval asceticism and obscurantism. This has greatly promoted the differentiation and development of the humanities subject with human beings as the core. At the same time, the disciplines of the natural sciences have gradually separated from the natural philosophy, entered a period of comprehensive and rapid development, and provided new models, methods and tools for understanding humanities and social phenomena. Since the middle of the 19th century, the social sciences such as economics, political science, and sociology have been developed in the study of specific social movements. They have been separated from philosophy and other humanities, and have achieved independent academic status. In addition to the few positions offered by national research institutes and universities, the social differentiation of the professional roles of humanities and social scientists has gradually accelerated, and the social organization of humanities and social science research has begun to take shape. So far, a large scientific system in which humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences have promoted each other and intertwined with each other has begun to take shape.

Humanities or humanities

Originally refers to the knowledge related to human interests, such as the study of Latin, Greek, and classical literature, and later refers to the study of social phenomena and culture and art. The meaning of the German word in the humanities includes both the social sciences and the humanities, which is equivalent to the humanities and social sciences we usually understand. This shows that in the minds of translators, humanities and humanities are synonymous and can be used without distinction. It can be argued that both humanities and humanities are based on the human spiritual life. They are all explorations of human thought, culture, value and spiritual performance. The purpose is to build a meaningful world and spiritual home for human beings, so that the soul and life can be Return. In the Chinese language, the etymological meanings of “humanities” and “humanities” are different. The former is directly the knowledge system formed by human spiritual and cultural activities, such as music, art, drama, religion, poetry, mythology, language. Such as works and knowledge of writing norms and skills. The latter is the experience and thinking about the meaning and value of human existence. It is the systematic and theoreticalization of the understanding of the essence, internal connection, social function and development law of human spiritual culture phenomena, such as musicology and fine arts. , drama, religion, literature, mythology, linguistics, etc. In fact, the former (humanities) is formed first, the latter (humanities) is developing late; the former is the basis for the latter, and the latter is the deepening of the former. Although the two have different emphasis, it is difficult to distinguish .

However, it should be pointed out that the use of “humanities” or “humanities” to refer to this collection of knowledge is not just a word game, but a major issue concerning how to view and evaluate this form of knowledge. The term “humanities” refers to the particularity and traditional form of this knowledge system, and it is different from science. On the other hand, it is considered that although the development of this knowledge system has a long history, it is still immature, and the “scientific” standard There is still a big gap. However, when we use this title today, we should see the scientific trend of this knowledge system. The title of “humanities” focuses on the latest development of this knowledge system and the relative maturity of certain disciplines. It believes that the development of this knowledge system is maturing and has the basic characteristics of “scientific knowledge.” However, it should be noted that when people use this title in this way, the word “science” has become more generalized than the meaning of the past.

From the perspective of knowledge development in this field, we tend to use the term “humanities”. Because, in the use of this title, the history of the development of the knowledge system should not be ignored. At present, the development of this knowledge system is still far from the generally accepted “scientific” standards (verifiability, interpretability, internal completeness, and predictability). Moreover, there are some important features in this field of knowledge that cannot be covered by “science”. These characteristics are old and new and will never disappear. It is called “humanities” and is more rigorous. It is also more in line with the current development of the subject group.

Humanities and Social Sciences

Social science is the science of studying social phenomena. Since the second half of the 19th century, people have followed the natural science model, borrowed from natural science methods, and studied increasingly complex social phenomena, forming a social science in the modern sense of politics, economics, sociology, law, education, and so on. The social sciences conducts different researches on human society from multiple perspectives and multiple perspectives. It tries to grasp the essence of society and the laws of development through the in-depth study of the structure, mechanism, changes and motivation of human society, and better build and manage society. Compared with the “humanities”, the social sciences are more scientific; compared with the natural sciences, the social sciences are weaker. The scientific nature of the three major knowledge fields of humanities, social sciences and natural sciences has increased in turn.

It is impossible to separate the humanities from the social sciences. People are social people at the beginning. Human spiritual and cultural activities are carried out in social scenes. They are themselves a social phenomenon. At the same time, social phenomena are also derived from the creation of human spiritual activities. Humanistic phenomena and social phenomena are composed of the activities of people and people and the products of activities. This is the inherent unity of human social life. The research object of humanities and social sciences is the same social life as a whole. They reflect the same social life in different ways from different aspects, and thus complement each other, infiltrate and influence each other. It is this close connection of water and milk that constitutes the inherent kinship and unity of the two, and becomes the objective basis for the integration of humanities and social sciences.

On this issue, Piaget has a very deep insight: “It is impossible to make any essential difference between what people usually call ‘social science’ and ‘humanities science’, because it is obvious that social phenomena depend on people. All the characteristics, including the psychophysiological process. Conversely, the humanities are social in this or that aspect. Only when people can distinguish in the human body what is belonging to the particular society in which he lives, This distinction makes sense when it is something that constitutes universal humanity…. Nothing can stop people from accepting the idea that ‘humanity’ also has requirements that are subordinate to a particular society, so that people are increasingly inclined There is no longer any distinction between the so-called social science and the so-called ‘human science’.” [5] Because of this, people nowadays often refer to the field of knowledge relative to the natural sciences, namely the humanities and social sciences as human society. Science, sometimes referred to as social science. The “humanities and social sciences” here is the product of disciplinary integration under the premise of recognizing the differences between human phenomena and social phenomena, humanities and social sciences. This trend fully reflects the characteristics of the era of comprehensive disciplines.

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